Practica Musica 6 Activities

All the activities listed below are included in each copy of Practica Musica 6 and can be accessed through the table of contents when the program opens. If an instructor has customized some activities for use with a class they can be uploaded to the class WebStudents account and the program can then open those, too, from the table of contents.

Activities that do not specify pre-composed or library examples will all generate their example material at random so that it is new each time. An activity that presents intervals, for instance, will choose intervals at random from the list of allowed types set in the activity description. An activity that generates melodies will create them anew for each problem attempt, and so on. Activities scored for points will all mark errors or otherwise inform you of the error, and all will store their scorekeeping records within your personal file.

Activities below are listed very roughly in order of increasing difficulty within each topic.

Categories:

Ear Training: Single Pitches
Ear Training: Intervals
Ear Training: Single Chords
Ear Training: Scales
Ear Training: Meter
Ear Training: Melody: Pitch Only
Ear Training: Melody: Rhythm Only
Ear Training: Melody: Pitch and Rhythm Together
Ear Training: Chord Progressions
Ear Training: Hearing Form, Texture, Other Characteristics in Precomposed Examples


Theory: Note Reading: Single Pitches
Theory: Pitch names
Theory: Intervals
Theory: Transposition and Inversion
Theory: Single Chords
Theory: Chord Progressions
Theory: Scales and Key Signatures
Theory: Meter
Theory: Note Reading: Intervals
Theory: Note Reading: Rhythm Reading
Theory: Note Reading: Melodic Pitches
Theory: Note Reading: Melodic Pitch and Rhythm Together
Theory: Voice Leading
Theory: Analysis of Harmony, Texture, etc. in Precomposed Examples
Theory: Notational Devices
Theory: Composition

Ear Training: Single Pitches

Repeat Pitches. (Also listed under Theory: Reading Single Pitches) 4 levels: naturals, with accidentals, in key signatures without accidentals, in key signatures with accidentals. A note is displayed and heard, you must simply repeat it. This could be either a keyboard pitch-finding exercise or a singing exercise.

Pitch Matching. Also listed under Ear Training: Intervals. Has 4 levels: 2nds, 3rds, 4ths-5ths, 6ths-7ths. Play the second of two heard notes, first is displayed. You can choose clef and key.

Custom Pitch Matching. Also listed under Ear Training: Intervals. Play the second of two heard notes, first is displayed. You can choose the intervals to be heard, and you can choose the clef and key.

Absolute Pitch. Identify pitches by ear, choosing with limited multiple-choice boxes. *Caveat: it is not certain that everyone can acquire absolute pitch (often called "perfect pitch") - not all trained musicians have it and there may be a genetic component involved. The absolute pitch exercises should be optional, while a good sense of relative pitch is something that most people can acquire with practice.

Custom Absolute Pitch. Identify pitches by ear via multiple choice, with choice of pitch materials. See above caveat re absolute pitch.

Find Absolute Pitches. 4 levels: naturals, with accidentals, in key signatures without accidentals, in key signatures with accidentals. This is an absolute pitch exercise that also involves key signatures in its later levels. You must find on the keyboard the pitch that is heard. See above caveat re absolute pitch.

Ear Training: Intervals

Up or Down. This very basic activity deals only with identifying whether two pitches are ascending, or whether they are descending. It's a necessary first step in ear training for students unfamiliar with the topic.

Leaps and Steps. In this basic ear training activity you only need to tell whether two notes were separated by a step (whole step or half step) or a leap (anything larger).

Comparing Steps. Plays a melodic whole step and a melodic half step but in random order each time. You are asked to identify which was heard first - the whole step or the half step? This has the advantage that each question is a comparison.

Whole Steps and Half Steps. A step is displayed and heard, you must identify it as whole or half.

Octaves. Asks you to identify an interval by ear as "octave" or "not an octave."

Comparing Thirds. Learn to distinguish major thirds from minor thirds. You'll hear a pair of thirds played one after the other - which was heard first: major, or minor?

Comparing Sixths. Learn to distinguish major sixths from minor sixths. You'll hear a pair of thirds played one after the other - which was heard first: major, or minor?

Identify Perfect Intervals. It can be difficult for a beginner to distinguish a perfect octave from a perfect fifth or fourth when played harmonically. This provides practice in making that distinction.

Comparing Interval Qualities. Including various intervals, plays two of the same type but different quality, and asks which was heard first. Each question includes some information, such as "The minor third is a half step smaller than the major one. I'll play both a major and a minor third. Which one did I play first?" You answer using multiple choice.

Pitch Matching. Also listed under Ear Training: Single Pitches. 4 levels: 2nds, 3rds, 4ths-5ths, 6ths-7ths. Play the second of two heard notes, first is displayed. You can choose the clef and key.

Custom Pitch Matching. Also listed under Ear Training: Single Pitches. Play the second of two heard notes, first is displayed. You can choose the intervals to be heard, plus the clef and key.

Repeat Intervals. Very much like Pitch Matching, except that you play both notes of an heard interval whose first note is displayed. Level 1 is all with root C, Level 2 is on various roots. You can choose the clef and key.

Repeat Intervals. Very much like Pitch Matching, except that you play both notes of an heard interval whose first note is displayed. Level 1 is all with root C, Level 2 is on various roots. You can choose the clef and key.

Hearing Intervals. Intervals are played and must be identified using multiple choice. You can rehear the example harmonically or melodically. 4 levels: intervals of the triad, filling in the octave, quality distinctions, all intervals.

Custom Hearing Intervals. Intervals are played and must be identified using multiple choice. You can rehear example harmonically or melodically, and you can choose which intervals to work with, plus the clef and key.

Choosing Harmonic Intervals. Four intervals are presented on 4 staves, and one of them is played, harmonically. You must choose which one was played.

Interval Series. 2 or more intervals are played in succession and must be labeled using multiple choice. Examples begin with 2 intervals and get longer as your score rises. 4 Levels: 2nds-3rds-P4-P5-4aug, P4-6th-7ths-5dim,m/M3rd-m/M 2nd - m/M 6th, P4-P5 then all.

Custom Interval Series. 2 or more intervals are played in succession and must be labeled using multiple choice. You can choose which intervals will be used, and how many in each set.

Speed Intervals. Intervals are presented on the staff and played; you must identify them by multiple choice; time is limited with the balloon drop timer.

Intervals in Melody Random melodies are presented with no indication of pitch (no staff lines; notes all at the same vertical position) and you must label the melodic interval between each note, using multiple choice labels. 2 Levels: major keys, minor keys.

Sequence Intervals 10 pre-composed examples are heard without a display of the notation. Each example presents a melodic idea followed by a tonal sequence - you identify the interval at which the idea was sequenced. Multiple choice.

Ear Training: Single Chords

Comparing Triads. Plays two chords in succession: one is major, one minor. Which was played first? This has the advantage that each problem involves comparing one quality with another, rather than hearing it in isolation.

Melodic Triads. 4 levels: major and minor, major and diminished, major and minor and diminished, all four. Identify the triad after hearing it arpeggiated, using multiple choice.

Choosing Triads. 4 staves each display a triad in major, minor, augmented, and diminished forms, all in the same inversion. Which was the one you heard? Identify it by choosing A, B, C, or D. You can choose the clef.

Chord Ear Training. 4 levels: triads, seventh chords, inverted triads, inverted seventh chords. You hear the chord and identify it by multiple choice. The chord is displayed after the answer is evaluated. You can hear the chord again either harmonically or arpeggiated, and after making a choice can compare the right and wrong answer. You can choose clef and key.

Custom Chord Ear Training. You hear the chord and identify it by multiple choice. The chord is displayed after the answer is evaluated. You can hear the chord again either harmonically or arpeggiated, and after making a choice can compare the right and wrong answer. You can choose which chords to work with in addition to choosing the clef and key.

Hearing Chord Inversions. 2 levels: major and minor triads, dominant and minor seventh chords. You hear the chord and identify its inversion by multiple choice. Chord is displayed after the answer is evaluated. You can hear the chord again either harmonically or arpeggiated, and after making a choice can compare the right and wrong answer. You can choose the clef and key.

Melodic Chord Inversions. Four chords are presented in melodic form (arpeggiated in a simple rhythm), and one is heard. Which one was it? Click A, B, C, or D to answer.

Choosing Melodic 7thChords. Random seventh chords are presented melodically, with each of 4 staves showing a variant of the chord (with or without accidentals on some degrees). You identify the one that was heard.

Ear Training: Scales

Hearing Major and Minor Scales. Learn to distinguish by ear the most important types of scales. Covers major, natural minor, and harmonic minor.

Scale Ear Training. A scale is played; you identify it using multiple choice. 3 levels: major and natural minor, natural and harmonic and melodic minor, and the church modes. The scale is displayed after the choice is made.

Custom Scale Ear Training. A scale is played; you identify it using multiple choice. You can choose which scales to work with. The scale is displayed after the choice is made.

Hearing Scale Degrees. This beginning activity plays a major scale followed by a single tone drawn from the scale. Which degree of the scale was played? Click on the correct number 1-7 for your answer.

Melodic Scale Degrees. 2 levels: major and minor. Random melodies are played and displayed without staff lines - you must label each note with its numeric degree (1, 2, 3...).

Melodic Scale Solfege. Same as Melodic Scale Degrees, but using Solfege syllables instead of numbers. 2 levels: major and minor. Random melodies are played and displayed without staff lines - you must label each note with its solfege syllable in moveable Do.

Scale Degrees in Context. You hear a cadence in a random key whose key signature is displayed. Following the cadence a single tone is played, and you must identify the degree number of that tone in the given key. 2 levels: major and minor.

Hearing Key Relations. 10 Examples are provided, and each has a question to be answered by multiple choice, such as "The 'B' section begins in a key different from that of the beginning. What relationship does the new key have to the original?" (Answers: dominant, relative major, etc.).

Ear Training: Meter

Meter Examples. Simply displays and performs examples from the literature to illustrate different types of meter.

Identifying Meter. 20 pre-composed examples are provided for listening but are not displayed at first. You identify the meter of each example using multiple choice, then the example is displayed in notation.

Ear Training: Melody: Pitch Only

Diatonic Pitch Patterns. A random diatonic melody is displayed in four variations, one of which is heard. Identify the version that was played.

Repeat Melody. This carries Repeat Intervals to the next step: you'll repeat short melodies, thinking only about the pitch. The rhythm doesn't matter, and the melody fragments get longer as you get better.

Progressive Pitch Dictation. Uses pre-composed examples in 4 levels: stepwise within key, adding m and M 3rds, adding P4 and P5, adding accidentals. Pitch-only; rhythm is provided.

Generated Pitch Dictation. 4 levels of increasing difficulty using randomly generated examples. This is pitch-only, with rhythm provided.

Custom Pitch Dictation. Melodic pitch dictation (rhythm is provided), with a choice of material for the random melodies.

Growing Melody Pitch Dictation. 3 levels: 2 to 8 notes of major, minor, and atonal melodic fragments. As score rises, the length of each random example increases.

Pitch Errors. A random melody is displayed and performed with at least one pitch error. Find and correct the wrong pitch or pitches by dragging the notes on the staff (and assigning accidentals, if needed). 4 levels: naturals, with accidentals, with key signatures, with key signatures and accidentals.

Custom Pitch Errors. You can choose the nature of the melody and its length. A random melody is displayed and performed with at least one pitch error. Find and correct the wrong pitch or pitches by dragging the notes on the staff (and assigning accidentals, if needed).

Library Pitch Dictation. This is pitch-only, with rhythm provided. 4 levels of increasing difficulty , with examples drawn from the literature.

Chromatic Pitch Patterns. A random chromatic melody is displayed in four variations, one of which is heard. Identify the version that was played.

Scale Variations. A short random quarter-note melody is heard, and is displayed along with 3 variations using different scale patterns. You identify the melody that was heard by clicking a multiple choice box: A, B, C, or D.

Rhythmic Scale Variations. A short random melody with varied rhythm is heard, and is displayed along with 3 variations using different scale patterns. You identify the melody that was heard by clicking a multiple choice box: A, B, C, or D.

Atonal Dictation. Pitch-only dictation, with 4 levels: melodies of 2-3 notes, 4 notes, 5 notes, 6 notes.

Custom Atonal Dictation. Pitch-only dictation, and you are able to choose the melody length and other characteristics.

Pitch Dictation in 2 Parts. 4 levels with 3 pre-composed examples in each. Rhythm is provided.

Atonal Dictation in 2 Parts Pitch dictation with random atonal melodies presented in two parts, rhythm provided. Instructions are html.

Custom 2-Part Atonal Dictation Pitch dictation with random atonal melodies presented in two parts, rhythm provided. Instructions are html. You can choose the melody length, rhythm type, etc.

Pitch Dictation in 4 Parts 5 brief examples drawn from Bach chorale harmonizations. Rhythm is provided.

Pitch Dictation with Chords. Also listed under ear training for chords in series. This combines melodic dictation with chord identification, using excerpts from Bach chorale harmonizations. You must both identify the chords by Roman numeral, using multiple choice labels, and fill in the soprano and bass voices. Inner voices are supplied.

Dictation 4 Parts with Chords. Also listed under ear training for chords in series. This combines melodic dictation with chord identification, using excerpts from Bach chorale harmonizations. You must both identify the chords by Roman numeral, using multiple choice labels, and fill in each of the 4 voices.

Mistuned Notes. This works only on the Macintosh, which supports microtonal tuning. In level 1, melodies are performed with one or more notes mistuned by 1/3 semitone. The mistuned notes must be identified as sharp or flat using labels. Level 2 is the same, but the mistuning is reduced to 1/4 semitone. Level 3 presents chords with some notes mistuned, also to be labeled.

Ear Training: Melody: Rhythm Only

Long and Short. A very basic introduction to rhythm values. You will hear 2 to 4 notes and choose whether the rhythm is long, short, short or short, short, long, etc.

Identifying Simple Rhythms. Four one-measure melodies are presented and one of them is played. The pitches are the same but the rhythm is different. Which was the one that was heard? Rhythms here are limited to quarters and eighths in simple meter.

One Bar Rhythms. This is the beginning step in learning to hear rhythms and relate them to their notation. These one-measure random patterns are composed of only quarter and eighth notes - you will put the notes in the staff in the order that you heard them.

Begin Writing Rhythm. A simpler version of Rhythm Dictation. Two levels are simple meter and compound meter, with pitches automatically provided. You enter just the correct note values and bar lines.

Correcting Rhythm Errors. Random melodies are displayed and performed, but they contain at least one rhythmic error as displayed. You must change any mistaken note values to make the displayed notation match what was heard.

Custom Rhythm Errors. You can choose the nature of the melody and its length. Random melodies are displayed and performed, but they contain at least one rhythmic error as displayed. You must change any mistaken note values to make the displayed notation match what was heard.

Rhythm Matching. A random melodic fragment is heard with the metronome, but not displayed. The metronome then begins again and you tap keys to match the rhythm that was heard. Pitches come out automatically; it is only necessary to match the rhythm. (*This no longer requires extra equipment - Macintosh computers have built-in sound that responds quickly, and Practica Musica 6 now includes a custom sound driver for Windows that gives similar capability to the Windows system.)

Custom Rhythm Matching. You can choose the type of rhythm and its length. A random melodic fragment is heard with the metronome, but not displayed. The metronome then begins again and you tap keys to match the rhythm that was heard. Pitches come out automatically; it is only necessary to match the rhythm. (*This no longer requires extra equipment - Macintosh computers have built-in sound that responds quickly, and Practica Musica 6 now includes a custom sound driver for Windows that gives similar capability to the Windows system.)

Rhythm Patterns. A random melody is played, and it is displayed along with 3 rhythmic variants. You must identify which version was the one heard.

Dotted Rhythm Patterns. A random melody emphasizing dotted rhythms is played, and it is displayed along with 3 rhythmic variants. You must choose which version was heard: A, B, C, or D?

Compound Rhythm Patterns. A random melody in compound meter is played, and it is displayed along with 3 rhythmic variants. You must choose which version was heard: A, B, C, or D?

Complex Rhythm Patterns. A random melody is played, and it is displayed along with 3 rhythmic variants. You must choose which version was heard: A, B, C, or D?

Generated Rhythm Dictation. A melody is played, but only the first note is provided. You must enter the correct note values on the staff - they will automatically align to the correct pitches, so you can concentrate just on the rhythm. Bar lines are also up to you. 4 levels of random melodies. 1: Duple and triple meter. 2: Compound meter. 3: adding syncopation, 4: adding triplets.

Custom Rhythm Dictation. YOu can choose the type and length of the melody. A melody is played, but only the first note is provided. You must enter the correct note values on the staff - they will automatically align to the correct pitches, so you can concentrate just on the rhythm. Bar lines are also up to you.

Library Rhythm Dictation. Pre-composed examples are drawn from the literature. A melody is played, but only the first note is provided. You must enter the correct note values on the staff - they will automatically align to the correct pitches, so you can concentrate just on the rhythm. Bar lines are also required.

Ear Training: Pitch and Rhythm Together

Melodic Dictation I. Full melodic dictation (you are responsible for both pitch and rhythm) using randomly generated melodies.

Melodic Dictation II. Full melodic dictation (you are responsible for both pitch and rhythm) using randomly generated melodies, with more complex rhythm.

Progressive Melodic Dictation. 4 Levels of Full melodic dictation (you are responsible for getting both the pitches and the time values). Use the notation tools to notate the melody that is heard. Melodies are randomly generated. (1) Duple and Triple meter, all naturals. (2) Compound meter, with accidentals. (3) With syncopation and key signatures. (4) With triplets, key signatures, and accidentals.

Custom Melodic Dictation. Melodic dictation (both pitch and rhythm), with a choice of material for the random melodies.

Library Melodic Dictation. Full melodic dictation (you are responsible for getting both the pitches and the time values), using a library of melodies drawn from the literature.

Custom Melody Matching. A random melody fragment is played but not displayed. The metronome begins again and you repeat the fragment as best as you remember it. This requires a MIDI keyboard for input, because it is difficult to get both pitch and rhythm when using the computer's letter keys for input. Caveats: Windows computers will require that the sounds be produced by the MIDI device rather than by the computer owing to the sound delay in most of those systems; Macintosh computers can use a MIDI device that merely triggers computer sounds if none other is available. You can choose melody type and length.

Harmonic Dictation. Using 12 examples drawn from Bach chorale harmonizations, write the soprano and bass voices and identify the chords by Roman numeral. (Listed under both pitch/rhythm and chord progressions).

Ear Training: Chord Progressions

Hearing Primary Chords. Beginning chord progression ear training, limited to just the primary triads I, IV, and V, or i, iv, and V in minor.

Chord Progression Ear Training. 4 levels: primary triads, with supertonic and submediant, with other secondary triads, with secondary dominants. Random chord progressions are played without being displayed, and you must identify each chord by Roman numeral, using multiple choice labels. You can hear the tonic chord played as guidance. Chord progression is displayed in staff notation after evaluation.

Custom Progressions. You can choose which chord pairs to include in the randomly generated examples. Chord progressions are played without being displayed, and you must identify each chord by Roman numeral, using multiple choice labels. You can hear the tonic chord played as guidance. Chord progression is displayed in staff notation after evaluation.

Library Chord Progressions. The 4 levels use pre-composed examples drawn from Bach chorale harmonizations. 1: tonic, dominant, and subdominant. 2: Major with secondary triads. 3: Minor with secondary triads. 4: Secondary dominants in major and minor. You must identify each chord by Roman numeral, using multiple choice labels. You can hear the tonic chord played as guidance. Chord progression is displayed in staff notation after evaluation but only if the answers were correct.

Hearing Altered Chords. 2 levels: secondary dominants, Neapolitan and augmented sixths. Random chord progressions are played that include the altered chords. All chords in the progression must be labeled using multiple choice labels. Chord progression is displayed in staff notation after evaluation.

Pitch Dictation with Chords. Also listed under melodic dictation. This combines melodic dictation with chord identification, using excerpts from Bach chorale harmonizations. You must both identify the chords by Roman numeral, using multiple choice labels, and fill in the soprano and bass voices.

Dictation 4 Parts with Chords. Also listed under melodic dictation.This combines melodic dictation with chord identification, using excerpts from Bach chorale harmonizations. You must both identify the chords by Roman numeral, using multiple choice labels, and fill in each of the 4 voices.

Harmonic Dictation Also listed under melodic dictation. Using 12 examples drawn from Bach chorale harmonizations, write the soprano and bass voices and identify the chords by Roman numeral.

Cadences. 18 pre-composed examples are provided for listening, and you identify the cadence that ends the example, drawing from multiple choice of PAC, Root Position IAC, Inverted IAC, Leading Tone IAC, Half Cadence, Phrygian Half, Plagal, Deceptive.

Ear Training: Hearing form, texture, other characteristics in precomposed examples

Analyzing Form. 20 Examples are provided for listening, and you use multiple choice to identify the form by ear (AB, AAB, etc.)

Characteristics and Texture. 8 Examples are provided for listening, and you use multiple choice to identify the most prominent characteristic of the example.

AP Sample Questions 1 You will hear part of a Mozart piano sonata, but it is not played correctly. Use multiple choice to identify each error (e.g. 'upper staff pitch,' 'lower staff rhythm,' etc. The correct version is displayed.

AP Sample Questions 2. You will hear a jazz example and several questions will be asked about it. What chord is outlined in the opening notes of the vibraphone, for one. Example is heard, but not seen.

AP Sample Questions 3. There are three examples, with several questions about each one. Topics are varied. Examples are heard, but not seen.

AP Sample Questions 4. The example is from a Mozart Divertimento. You'll be asked several questions about various aspects of the piece. Example is heard, but not seen.

AP Sample Questions 5. The example is from a Corelli concerto. You'll be asked several questions about various aspects of the piece. Example is heard, but not seen.

AP Sample Questions 6. You'll be asked several questions on varied topics, each referring to the example, from a Mozart Sonata for violin and piano. Example is heard, but not seen.

Theory: Note Reading: Single Pitches

Repeat Pitches. (Listed in both Theory and Ear Training for Single Pitches) 4 levels: naturals, with accidentals, in key signatures without accidentals, in key signatures with accidentals. A note is displayed and heard, you must simply repeat it. This could be either a keyboard pitch-finding exercise or a singing exercise.

Starting Pitch Reading. Single notes appear along with some explanation of the staff notation. You play the indicated note on the screen piano.

Treble Clef Naturals. A beginning lesson that teaches the pitches of the treble clef. You play the displayed notes, appearing one at a time, by finding them on the labeled keyboard.

Treble Clef Accidentals. Pitches notated in the treble clef are presented one at a time, and you should play the requested pitch. Pitches will include accidentals.

Single Pitches. A timed exercise in which you must play a displayed note before the balloon pops. 4 levels: naturals, with accidentals, in key signatures without accidentals, in key signatures with accidentals.

Theory: Pitch Names

Pitch Names. Random notes appear 4 at a time and must be labeled using choice boxes for pitch names. 2 levels: bass, treble clef.

Theory: Intervals

The Keyboard. Simply puts up a keyboard and identifies steps as whole or half as you play them.

Playing Steps. A beginning exercise in which you are asked, e.g. to "Please play both notes of a whole step ascending from F." Material covers just whole and half steps, ascending and descending, without regard to note spelling.

Interval Types. Each random question displays an interval on the staff and includes some information, such as 'Two adjacent letter names make a second (line to space, space to line. Thirds cover three names - from one line to the next, or one space to the next. Is this a second or a third?' You answer with multiple choice. The example can also be heard harmonically or melodically.

Playing Diatonic Intervals. Using the screen piano or an external instrument, you play various diatonic intervals on request, and the correct interval is shown if you are mistaken.

Interval Playing. Play the requested interval on the keyboard. Correct enharmonics are supplied automatically. 4 levels: small diatonic, large diatonic, small chromatic, large chromatic.

Custom Interval Playing. Play the requested interval on the keyboard. Correct enharmonics are supplied automatically. You can choose which intervals to practice.

Interval Spelling. Write the requested interval on the staff or play it on the enharmonic keyboard. Correct enharmonic spelling is required. 4 levels: small diatonic, large diatonic, small chromatic, large chromatic.

Building Intervals. You are asked to write various intervals on the staff, or enter them via the enharmonic keyboard. Correct spelling of enharmonics is required.

Visual Intervals. Identify intervals at sight, using multiple choice boxes. 4 levels: intervals of the triad; filling in the octave, quality distinctions, all intervals. You can choose the clef and key signature.

Custom Visual Intervals. Identify intervals at sight, using multiple choice boxes. Time-limited with the balloon drop timer. 3 levels: midrange for chosen clef; with upper ledgers in chosen clef, with lower ledgers in chosen clef. You can choose the clef and the type of intervals and the key signature.

Fast Visual Intervals. A variant of the Visual Intervals activity, this one uses the balloon drop timer as you click multiple choice boxes to identify the quality of certain intervals at sight (e.g. major/minor, augmented/diminished). The 4 levels are 7ths, 6ths, 5ths, and 4ths.

Inverting Intervals. Random intervals are displayed on the staff, and you use multiple choice to identify the inversion of the displayed interval, e.g. answering "major 6th" if the displayed interval is a minor third. You can choose the clef and key context.

Theory: Transposition and Inversion

Tonal Transposition. Random melodies are presented with a request to transpose the melody to a different starting pitch, e.g. 'Please transpose this melody tonally so that it begins on B.' The original melody is provided on one staff; you enter the transposed notes on the staff below. Rhythms come out automatically; you need only get the pitches.

Real Transposition. Random melodies are presented with a request to transpose the melody to a different key, e.g. "Please transpose this F major melody to the key of C major." You also choose the key signature as appropriate. The original melody is provided on one staff; you enter the transposed notes on the staff below. Rhythms come out automatically; you need only get the pitches.

Tonal Inversion. Random melodic fragments are presented in the upper staff; you are asked to write the tonal inversion in the lower staff. Rhythm is provided automatically; you need only find the correct pitches.

Tonal Sequencing. Brief random melodic fragments are provided and you are asked to transpose the fragment tonally to a certain starting pitch. The example is on the upper staff; you enter the transposed notes on the lower staff. Rhythm comes in automatically; it's all about finding the right pitches.

Transcribing from Alto C. Random melodies are presented in the alto clef. You must correctly re-enter the same melody in the lower staff, using the octava treble clef. Rhythm is automatic.

Transposing Instruments. Random melodies appear in the upper staff and you are asked to reenter the melody in the lower staff as required for a specific transposing instrument. For example, 'Please write this C major melody as required for Bb clarinet or other Bb instrument.' You should also choose the appropriate key signature. Rhythm is automatic. This is a good exercise for orchestration.

Sequence Intervals. 10 pre-composed examples are heard without a display of the notation. Each example presents a melodic idea followed by a tonal sequence - you identify the interval at which the idea was sequenced. Multiple choice.

Theory: Single Chords

Playing Major and Minor Triads. You are asked play major and minor triads on various roots. The correct enharmonics are supplied automatically; in this exercise the task is just to find the right keys on the piano.

Chord Playing. Play on the keyboard various requested chords. The correct enharmonic spellings are provided automatically. You can choose the clef and key. 4 levels: triads, seventh chords, inverted triads, inverted seventh chords.

Custom Chord Playing. You can choose which chord types to work with, in addition to clef and key. Play on the keyboard various requested chords in requested inversions; the correct enharmonic spellings are provided automatically.

Chord Playing in Context. 4 levels: triads, seventh chords, inverted triads, inverted seventh chords. Instead of being given a chord root and chord type you are asked to play, e.g. 'VI in the key of e minor.' The correct enharmonic spellings are provided automatically. You can choose the clef and key.

Recognizing Triads. Identify triads by type at sight, using multiple choice boxes. You can choose clef and key. The chord is played in addition to being displayed.

Building Triads. Enter, or play on the enharmonic keyboard, the pitches to form requested triads in various inversions. Correct spelling of enharmonics is required. You can choose the clef and key.

Chord Spelling. Enter on the staff or play on the enharmonic keyboard various requested chords in requested inversions. Correct enharmonic spellings are required. You can choose the clef and key. 4 levels: triads, seventh chords, inverted triads, inverted seventh chords.

Custom Chord Spelling. You can choose which chord types to work with, in addition to clef and key. Enter on the staff or play on the enharmonic keyboard various requested chords in requested inversions. Correct enharmonic spellings are required.

Secondary Dominant Sevenths. You are asked to enter on the staff or play on the enharmonic keyboard, e.g. 'V7 of vi in A Major.' Correct enharmonic spelling is required. You can choose the clef; the key is chosen at random by the program.

Custom Secondary Dominants. You are asked to enter on the staff or play on the enharmonic keyboard, e.g. "V7 of IV in C Major." You can choose which chord types to work with, in addition to clef and key. Correct enharmonic spelling is required.

Spelling Augmented Sixths. You are asked to enter or play on the enharmonic keyboard the notes of, e.g. 'The French aug. 6th that would resolve to the dominant in the key of Bb major.' 4 levels: the French sixth, the German and Italian sixths, the doubly-augmented sixth, and all together.

Recognizing Seventh Chords. Identify seventh chords by type at sight, using multiple choice boxes. You can choose clef and key. The chord is played in addition to being displayed.

Building Seventh Chords. Enter, or play on the enharmonic keyboard, the pitches to form requested 7th chords in various inversions. Correct spelling of enharmonics is required. You can choose the clef and key.

Visual Chords. Identify chords at sight, using multiple choice boxes. 4 Levels: triads, seventh chords, inverted triads, inverted seventh chords. You can choose the clef and key.

Custom Visual Chords. Identify chords at sight, using multiple choice boxes. You can choose which chord types to work with, in addition to clef and key.

Types of Six-Four Chords. 12 examples from the literature are presented, with a question mark appearing above a 6/4 chord in each one. You use multiple choice to identify the chord as Cadential, Arpeggiated, Passing, or Pedal.

Distinguishing Chords. Another visual chord exercise, this one focusing on distinguishing dominant seventh, minor seventh, diminished seventh, and half-diminished seventh chords in various inversions.

Theory: Chord Progressions

Analyzing Primary Chords. Simple chord progressions are displayed and heard that use just the primary triads I, IV, and V, or i, iv, and V in minor. You should label each chord with the appropriate Roman numeral. Chords may be inverted or in root position, open or close.

Harmonic Rhythm. 3 examples from the piano literature are provided, and you use labels to mark changes of harmony in the composition: C for a change, N if the previous harmony is continuing.

Secondary Dominants. Random chord progressions are generated and displayed. These may or may not contain secondary dominants; you label each chord as 'Yes' (a secondary dominant) or 'No' (not a secondary dominant).

Theory: Scales and Key Signatures

The Major Scale. This beginning activity asks you to play on the keyboard a major scale ascending or descending from different starting pitches. Correct note spelling is provided automatically.

Play a Major Scale Melody. This beginning activity presents "My Country, 'tis of Thee" (God Save the Queen) in three different keys, and you are asked to play the notes without being scored for rhythm. The computer accompanies the notes with appropriate harmony, which makes it more fun.

Playing Scales. Play or write the requested scale and choose the appropriate key signature. Enharmonics are provided if playing on the keyboard. 4 levels: major, natural minor, other minors, church modes.

Modal Melodies. Just invents random melodies in the chosen mode or scale and displays them. Melodies can of course be heard, too.

Spelling Scales. You enter the notes of the requested scale, either directly on the staff or using the enharmonic keyboard, and chooses the appropriate key signature. Correct enharmonic spelling is required.

Custom Scales. Play or write the requested scale and choose the appropriate key signature. Enharmonics are provided if playing on the keyboard; you can choose which scales to work with.

Choosing Key Signatures. Practica Musica displays major scales on various tonics, and you are asked to choose the appropriate key signature. The effect of the signature is seen: accidentals disappear in the notated scale.

Building Key Signatures. Level 1 is sharp signatures, level 2 is flat signatures. Using a sharp or flat symbol, you should build the requested key signature by placing the sharps or flats in the correct positions on the staff. You can choose the clef.

Labeling Key Signatures. Key signatures are presented and you must label them with the appropriate key name. The keys are identified as either major or minor. 2 levels: major keys and minor keys.

Degrees. 2 levels: major and minor keys. You are asked to play a given degree of a given scale, e.g. 'supertonic of the key of F major.' As usual with this sort of exercise, the program will tell you what played if you get it wrong (e.g. "No, A is the mediant!").

Tonics. 2 levels: major and minor keys. You are asked to play the tonic of the key represented by a displayed major or minor key signature.

Display Solfege. Not really an exercise - in this activity you can enter notes on the staff and see them identified with the appropriate moveable-Do solfege syllable, according to the chosen key. The screen piano is also labeled appropriately according to the chosen key.

Relative Keys. A window displays a series of key signatures, each labeled appropriately. You use multiple choice boxes to identify the relative major or relative minor of each.

Mode Variations. 4 scales are displayed, each on a separate staff, all beginning on the same pitch. You should choose A, B, C, or D to answer questions such as "Which of these is a major scale?"

Diatonic Pitches. 4 notes are displayed, each on a separate staff labeled A-D.. You should choose A, B, C, or D to answer such questions as 'Which of these pitches is diatonic in the key of Db Major?' 2 Levels: major keys and minor keys.

Scales in Melody. Random melodies are generated (each does end on its tonic). You identify the scale using multiple choice: Major, Natural minor, Dorian, Phrygian, Lydian, Mixolydian. You can choose the clef.

Theory: Meter

Placing Barlines. Random melodies are presented in various meters but with no bar lines. You should enter measure lines in the correct places, assuming that the first rhythm symbol begins a measure.

Beaming to Show the Beat. Random melodies appear that usually include beamable notes. You are asked to beam notes in such a way that the beat for the chosen meter will be clearly indicated. For example, in 3/4 a group of six 8th notes would be beamed in three groups of two, but in 6/8 would be beamed as two groups of three.

Meter Types. Presents a series of one-measure examples in different meters. Using multiple choice labels, you identify each as simple quadruple, simple triple, compound duple, compound triple, compound quadruple, or asymmetrical.

Hemiola. In 6 provided examples drawn from the literature you are asked to identify the measures that contain hemiola, using multiple choice boxes for the measure ranges.

Theory: Note Reading: Intervals

Vertical Sight Reading. Play displayed intervals or chords at sight, with a timer limit (balloon drop timer). 3 levels: intervals, triads, seventh chords.

Theory: Rhythm Reading

*(*Real-time rhythm tapping no longer requires extra equipment - Macintosh computers have built-in sound that responds quickly, and Practica Musica 6 now includes a custom sound driver for Windows that gives similar capability to the Windows system.)

Beginning Rhythm Tapping. Provides 7 pre-composed examples that begin with plain quarter notes, then plain halves, mixed quarters and halves, etc. You tap any pair of keys in the middle row of the letter keyboard to trigger the notes of the melody; pitches are provided automatically. Your performance is scored both for the accuracy of the start time of each note and for having its duration in an acceptable range.

Beginning Tapping With Rests. The followup to Reading Simple Rhythm provides 7 similar examples that now include rests. Examples begin with plain quarter notes and rests, then plain halves and half rests, mixed quarters and halves, etc. You tap any pair of keys in the middle row of the letter keyboard to trigger the notes of the melody; pitches are provided automatically. You are scored both for the accuracy of the start time of each note and for having its duration in an acceptable range.

Ten Rhythm Tapping Exercises. Provides 10 pre-composed examples of increasing difficulty, but all of them fairly simple. You tap any pair of keys in the middle row of the letter keyboard to trigger the notes of the melody; pitches are provided automatically. You are scored both for the accuracy of the start time of each note and for having its duration in an acceptable range.

The Rhythm Drop. This activity is especially game-like. A brief random melodic fragment is presented, without staff lines, and is played together with a metronome. Then the metronome begins again, and notes start falling toward a goal line. They will each hit the line at the moment they are to be played, so you should tap a key each time a note hits the line. Tapping the rhythm in good time will 'catch' each note as it hits the line. If a note is played too early it will stop above the line; if played too late it will stop below the line.

Rhythm Tapping Practice. Tap the rhythm of random melodies, without regard to pitch. Melodies are not complex, and employ just halves, quarters, and eighths with some dotted notes.

Rhythm Reading. Tap any pair of keys (best to use the middle row of letter keys) and the pitches will be provided. You are scored both for the accuracy of the start time of each note and for having its duration in an acceptable range. 4 levels - 1: duple and triple meter. 2: Compound meter. 3: Adding syncopation. 4. Adding triplets.

Rhythm Band. New for 2012: this fun activity has three levels of difficulty: simple, intermediate, and advanced. A randomly generated rhythmic example is presented, the metronome begins ticking, and you start tapping keys when ready. Pitches are automatic; you just tap any pair of keys in the middle row of the keyboard, using two fingers. If you read the example correctly, it is randomly assigned various percussion sounds and is added to the accompaniment heard as you try the next example. The complex patterns built up are what make this fun, and you will gain practice not only in reading rhythms but in reading them while other rhythms are playing simultaneously. You can retry each example until you get it right.

Custom Rhythm Reading. You can choose the nature and length of the random melody. Tap any pair of keys (best to use the middle row of letter keys) and the pitches will be provided. You are scored both for the accuracy of the start time of each note and for having its duration in an acceptable range.

Active Listening. This is not scored for points, but is fun. You can pick any part in one of the compositions provided, and then tap a pair of keys to trigger its notes. The other parts will follow along. If you can get your rhythm correct it works better with the other voices, but they will stop at the first available place if you stop, and will start again when you do.

Rounds. Like Active Listening, this is not scored for points, but is fun and is good practice in reading rhythm. You can pick any part in one of the compositions provided, and then tap a pair of keys to trigger its notes. The other parts will follow along. If you can get your rhythm correct it works better with the other voices, but they will stop at the first available place if you stop, and will start again when you do. The activity provides 8 traditional rounds.

Reading Syncopation. Provides 10 pre-composed examples of increasing difficulty, all of them involving syncopation. You should tap any pair of keys in the middle row of the letter keys to trigger the notes of the melody; pitches are provided automatically. You are scored both for the accuracy of the start time of each note and for having its duration in an acceptable range.

Reading Triplets. Provides 7 pre-composed examples of increasing difficulty, all of them involving triplets. You should tap any pair of keys in the middle row of letter keys to trigger the notes of the melody; pitches are provided automatically. You are scored both for the accuracy of the start time of each note and for having its duration in an acceptable range.

Rhythm Reading in 2 Parts You tap the the rhythm of both parts simultaneously, with the left hand using a pair of keys in the left side of the computer keyboard, and the right hand tapping in the right side. Pitches are supplied automatically. 4 levels, with 3 pre-composed examples in each.

Tapping Tricky Rhythms. Provides generated random examples of exceptional difficulty. Level 1 is without triplets; level 2 is with tripets. You tap any pair of keys in the middle row of letter keys to trigger the notes of the melody; pitches are provided automatically. You are scored both for the accuracy of the start time of each note and for having its duration in an acceptable range.

Theory: Note Reading: Melodic Pitches

Lines and Spaces. Pitch reading of random quarter note melodies confined to either lines or spaces. 4 Levels: treble clef spaces, treble clef lines, bass clef spaces, bass clef lines.

Reading Treble Clef. Pitch reading of whole-note melodies in treble clef, no key signature.

Reading Bass Clef. Pitch reading of whole-note melodies in bass clef, no key signature.

Reading In Keys. Pitch-reading of quarter-note melodies in various key signatures. You can choose the clef.

Reading Accidentals. Pitch-reading of whole-note melodies involving accidentals. 2 levels: treble or bass clef.

Pitch Reading. Reading random melodies without regard to rhythm. 4 Levels: naturals, with accidentals, key signatures, key signatures with accidentals.

Pitch Reading Practice. One level. Read the pitches of random melodies, without regard to rhythm.

Reading with Ledger Lines. A pitch reading activity that concentrates on ledger lines - your choice of upper or lower ledgers, and using your choice of clef. The ledger count increases as you progress.

Custom Pitch Reading. Pitch reading of random quarter note melodies with your choice of melodic material.

Custom Library Pitch Reading. Pitch reading of music files chosen by you. You can also enter notes and save them as a file to be read.

Transposable Pitch Reading. Read melodic pitches (not counting rhythm) in transpositions chosen by you, with four levels: naturals, with accidentals, with key signatures, with key signatures and accidentals.

Custom Transposed Reading. One level. Read melodic pitches (not counting rhythm) in transpositions chosen by you.

Theory: Note Reading: Melodic Pitch and Rhythm Together

Progressive Sight Reading. Uses pre-composed examples in 4 levels: stepwise within key, adding m and M 3rds, adding P4 and P5, adding accidentals. Essentially the same activity as Progressive Rhythm Reading, except that you must get both the pitch and the rhythm. This requires a MIDI keyboard for input, because it is difficult to get both pitch and rhythm when using the computer's letter keys for input. You can choose the type and length of the melody.

Custom Sight Reading. A full melody sight-reading exercise in which you can open and exercise with any saved melody file. This will usually require a MIDI keyboard for input, since it's difficult to do both pitch and rhythm using only the computer's letter keys. Windows computers will also require MIDI output to achieve a satisfactory timing response; Macintosh computers can use a MIDI controller to trigger the computer's own sounds if a MIDI output device is not available.

No-Input Sight Reading. This is not scored; it simply generates random melodies for you to practice singing. You can listen to each one after attempting it, and can also choose the type and length of the melody, clef, key, etc.

Pitch Reading with Solfege. Similar to No-input Sight Reading, but with the option to display moveable- Do solfege syllables above each note. In treble clef (level 1) or bass clef (level 2) and without the ability to set melody characteristics beyond choosing the key. Simply generates random melodies for you to practice singing.

Theory: Voice Leading

Relative Motion. 14 two-part note pairs are provided, to be identified by their type of motion: similar, parallel, contrary, oblique.

Melodic Motion. 4 pre-composed 2-part melodies are provided; you are asked to use multiple choice labels to identify the type of melodic motion in various measures: similar, parallel, contrary, oblique.

Nonharmonic Tones. Using multiple choice boxes, identify nonharmonic tones in examples drawn from Bach chorale harmonizations.

Nonharmonic Tones 2. Using multiple choice boxes, identify nonharmonic tones in 3 examples from Vivaldi and Chopin.

Nonharmonic Tones 3. Viewing an excerpt from a Mozart Trio, you use multiple choice to answer such questions as "In relation to the keyboard part, the violin part in measures 76-77 contains a ..." (passing tone, neighboring tone, etc.). The six questions all refer to the same example.

Cadential Nonharmonic Tones. 8 provided examples are displayed and heard, and you use multiple choice to identify a circled non-chordal tone as Passing Tone, Neighbor Tone, Suspension, Escape Tone, Anticipation, Pedal Tone.

Seeing Voiceleading Errors. Two brief examples are provided that display certain errors in voice leading. You should label the errors using the appropriate multiple choice label.

Chorale Writing. A four-part chorale based on a complete Bach chorale harmonization is provided together with Roman numeral analysis, but all four voices are entered as quarter notes and without regard to voice leading. You should drag notes to different pitches and may also enter passing tones, etc. to turn this into an acceptable chorale. The program will mark errors of voice leading, and you can re-evaluate as many times as desired to improve the composition.

Realizing Roman Numerals. This uses just brief examples drawn from Bach chorale harmonizations. You see the first note of each voice and the Roman numerals of the desired harmony. The program will mark voice-leading errors.

Realizing Roman Numerals 2. Uses 10 examples drawn from Bach chorale harmonizations. You see the first note of each voice and the Roman numerals of the desired harmony. The program will mark voice-leading errors.

Realizing Figured Bass. Realize figured bass in 4 parts and identify the resulting harmonies by Roman numeral. Part writing errors marked by the program. Includes 8 examples, drawn from Bach chorale harmonizations.

Worksheet 38. This repeats the examples of worksheet 38 in the Exploring Theory worksheets, allowing your work to be evaluated by the computer. There are four examples drawn from Bach chorale harmonizations, each with figured bass to realize in four parts.

Two-Part Writing. 3 examples are provided, with one voice completed and the second only partially completed. You carry on the melody of the second voice and identify by Roman numeral the implied harmonies.

Theory: Analysis of Harmony, Texture, etc. in Precomposed Examples

AP Example Questions 7. The example is taken from Beethoven's Archduke Trio, with six questions to answer about its harmony and texture. Example is displayed and can be heard.

AP Example Questions 9. Various multiple-choice questions will be asked about the example, taken from a Mozart Trio.

AP Example Questions 10. You view an example (from Schubert's Impromptu No. 2) and use multiple choice to answer 5 questions, such as: 'The measures following 25-26 are an example of' ( imitation, ostinato, sequence, diminution...), or 'Measure 25 presents harmony in which key?' , or 'In measure 25 the notes are drawn from what scale?'

Theory: Notational Devices

Performance Marks. Using 7 pre-composed examples, you identify slurs, ties, dotted notes, staccato notes, accents, crescendo marks.

Theory: Composition

Shaping Melody. This provides the rhythm of a number of well-known melodies, in such a way that any melody you write will follow the same rhythm. Results are not scored; it's an exercise in shaping melodic lines using a rhythm known to work well.

Composition. This activity provides tools for writing music. Music can be written with multiple parts and staves, including text and chord symbols if desired, and can be printed or played. This is particularly useful for exercises in chorale writing or song writing.

Orchestra Writing. This activity provides tools for writing music, including a command to set the transposition of a staff used for a transposing instrument. Music can be written with multiple parts and staves, including text and chord symbols if desired, and can be printed or played.